Archive for the 'Marketing' Category

Americans value money and brains over looks

We recently posed a question on a national poll which required Americans to make an interesting choice:

If you could have one of the following, which would you choose?

  • I would have more money than I have today
  • I would be smarter than I am today
  • I would be better looking than I am today

This is a provocative cocktail party question. How would you answer it? How might your answer change depending on your life stage – would you answer it differently 15 years ago or 15 years into the future?

Across all ages (18+), 61% of Americans choose more money. It would be interesting to pose this question internationally to learn if this finding reflects American culture and capitalism or if this result reflects something universal to all people. Overall, 26% of US adults choose being smarter and 12% choose being better looking. So, it can be said that Americans value money and brains over looks.

We should note that there wasn’t a gender difference in the results. Males and females were just as likely to say all three options. There were a couple of interesting racial differences. Hispanics were least likely to say they would like more money and most likely to say they would like to be smarter. Blacks were as likely as others to say “money” but were more likely than others to say “better looking” and less likely to say “smarter.”

But, by far the largest and most interesting differences in this question related to the generation of the respondent. We’ve seen the Millennial generation maligned quite a bit recently, hearing that they are entitled and a bit lazy. We’ve never quite believed that, as the perception that a youth generation is disrespectful and lazy has been true since before the term “generation” was coined.

For instance, this is a quote from Socrates, and is about 2,400 years old:

“Children today are tyrants.  They contradict their parents, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers.”

Mark Twain, late in his life, had this to say about children:

“When a child turns 12 you should put him in a barrel, nail the lid down, and feed him through a knot hole… When he turns 16, plug the hole.”                                              

One of the more cynical (and unintentionally humorous) quotations about children came from Clarence Darrow, almost a century ago:

“The first half of our lives is ruined by our parents and the second half by our children.”

But, back to our poll question.  There are currently five living generations:

First birth year

Final birth year Current youngest member

Current oldest member

Silent

1925

1942 75

92

Boom

1943

1960 57

74

Gen X

1961

1981 36

56

Milllennials

1982

2004 13

35

Homelanders 2005 2017 0

12

Which one do you think would be the most apt to choose “more money” in our question? We’d presume that most people would predict it would be Millennials. But, in reality, it is Boomers who are most likely to say money:

More Money Smarter Better Looking
Silent

54%

37%

9%

Boom

71%

19%

11%

Gen X

65%

26%

10%

Milllennials

52% 31%

17%

There are fascinating generational differences in this table.  Howe and Strauss have developed an excellent generational theory, and one aspect of it is that a generational cycle recurs through four archetypes. So, typically, a current youth generations will have a similar type and outlook as the oldest living generation. This theory is supported by the table above. It is the oldest (Silent) and youngest (Millennials) generations that are least concerned with money and relatively most concerned with being smarter.

Boomers come across as the most money-obsessed generation, which is interesting as they are in a life stage where personal net worth tends to peak. 71% of Boomers would prefer more money to being smarter or better looking.  Of course, with all generational conclusions, it could be more of a life stage issue at work – Boomers are currently between 57 and 74 years old and perhaps pre- and early-retirement are particularly money-centric life stages. But, we suspect that if we had conducted this poll over time Boomers would have been highly concerned with money compared to other generations throughout all life stages.

Finally, these results underscore a point we like to make with clients. It is challenging to fully understand a generation unless we widen the sampling frame and interview other generations as well. Had this question just been asked of Millennials, we may have concluded that money was an overriding concern for them. It is only when comparing them to other generations that we see that they value intelligence and smarts more than others.

How to Be a Good Research Supplier

Crux Logo Final 2016

A while back, we posted “How to Be a Good Research Client” to help clients understand the makings of a successful partnership from the supplier perspective. Here, we’d like to do the opposite: advise suppliers on how to position for success with their clients.

Being an outstanding supplier goes beyond the technical abilities of understanding statistics, experimental design, business, and marketing. There are many researchers who have these skills, but are not great suppliers. They are necessary, but not sufficient skills.

It starts with empathy – a good supplier will understand not just the business situation the client is facing, but also the internal pressures he/she faces. We’ve found over time that suppliers who have spent time as clients themselves understand what happens to projects after the final presentation in a way that many suppliers just cannot.

So, here goes:  Our 10 tips on how to be a good research supplier.

  1. Begin by seeking out the right clients. There is simply too much pressure, especially at larger research firms, to take on every project that comes your way. It really helps if you have guidelines as to which clients you will accept: which ones match with your skills in a unique way, are doing things you are genuinely interested in studying, and have individuals who are good project managers.
  2. Be honest about what you are good at and not so good at. Research isn’t quite like law or medicine where every task seems to devolve to a specialty, but there are specialties. You are not good at everything and neither is your firm. Once you realize this, you can concentrate on where you provide unique value.
  3. Understand what is at stake. Some market research projects influence how millions of dollars are spent. Still others are a part of a substantial initiative within a company. Somewhere, there is somebody whose career hinges on the success of this initiative. While the research project might come and go in a matter of months to you as a supplier and be one of a dozen you are working on, the success of the project might make or break someone’s career. It is good to never lose sight of that.
  4. Price projects to be profitable. You should price projects to make a strong profit for your firm and then not waiver easily on price. Why? Because then you can put all thoughts of profitability out of your mind at the onset and focus on delivering a great project. Never, and we mean never, take on an unprofitable project because of the prospects of further projects coming down the road. It doesn’t serve you or your client well.
  5. Don’t nickel and dime clients. They will ask for things you didn’t bid on or anticipate. Not everything they need will be foreseeable. An extra banner table. A second presentation. A few extra interviews. Follow ups you didn’t expect. Just do it and don’t look back. Larger research firms are prone to charging for every little thing the client asks. After a while, the client stops asking and moves onto another firm. Projects can be expensive. Nickle and diming your clients for small requests is about as frustrating as buying a new car and having the dealer charge you extra to put floor mats in it.
  6. Never be the one your client is waiting on. If there is one rule here that we feel we have mastered at Crux it is this one. There are a lot of moving parts in a project. You often need things from clients and they need things from you along the way. Never be the one people are waiting on. Stay late if you have to, come in early, work from home … do anything but be the “rate limiting factor” on a project. Your clients will love you for it.
  7. Be around “forever” for follow ups. We have seen suppliers put in contracts that they are available for 3 months from when the project is over for follow up discussions. Why? We love it when clients call years after a project is over as it means the project is still having an influence on their business. Be there as long as it takes for them.
  8. Be human. It took us a little time to learn this one. We used to be very workmanlike and professional around clients to the point of being a bit “stiff.” Then we realized clients want to work with people who are professional about the task at hand, but also fun to be around, and well, human. Granted, they don’t want to hear about every stress of your personal life, but relax a little and be who you are. If that doesn’t work out well for you, you might not be in the right career.
  9. Make them feel like they are your only client. You might have a dozen projects on your plate, family commitments tugging at you, coworkers driving you crazy, and a myriad of other things competing for your time. Time management isn’t easy in a deadline driven field such as research. But it also isn’t your client’s problem. They should feel like you have nothing else to do all day but work on their project. The focus needs to be on them, and not your time management. When you are late for a meeting because you had another run over, you are telling your client they aren’t your number one priority.
  10. Follow up. The project might be over for you, but it lives on longer for your client.  Be sure to follow up a few weeks down the line to see if there is anything else you can do. You’ll be surprised at how often the next project comes up during this conversation.

Congratulations to Truth Initiative!

Congratulations again to our client, Truth Initiative!  Last week Truth won 4 Effies and 2 Big Apple awards for its anti-tobacco campaigns.

Read more about these wins here:  truth campaign grabs 4 effies, 2 big apple awards.

Asking about gender and sexual orientation on surveys

When composing questionnaires, there are times when the simplest of questions have to adjust to fit the times. Questions we draft become catalysts for larger discussions. That has been the case with what was once the most basic of all questions – asking a respondent for their gender.

This is probably the most commonly asked question in the history of survey research. And it seems basic – we typically just ask:

  • Are you… male or female?

Or, if we are working with younger respondents, we ask:

  • Are you … a boy or a girl?

The question is almost never refused and I’ve never seen any research to suggest this is anything other than a highly reliable measure.

Simple, right?

But, we are in the midst of an important shift in the social norms towards alternative gender classifications. Traditionally, meaning up until a couple of years ago, if we wanted to classify homosexual respondents we wouldn’t come right out and ask the question, for fear that it would be refused or be found to be an offensive question for many respondents. Instead, we would tend to ask respondents to check off a list of causes that they support. If they chose “gay rights”, we would then go ahead and ask if they were gay or straight. Perhaps this was too politically correct, but it was an effective way to classify respondents in a way that wasn’t likely to offend.

We no longer ask it that way. We still ask if the respondent is male or female, but we follow up to ask if they are heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, etc.

We recently completed a study among 4-year college students where we posed this question.  Results were as follows:

  • Heterosexual = 81%
  • Bisexual = 8%
  • Lesbian = 3%
  • Gay = 2%
  • Transgender = 1%
  • Other = 2%
  • Refused to answer = 3%

First, it should be noted that 3% refused to answer is less than the 4% that refused to answer the race/ethnicity question on the same survey.  Conclusion:  asking today’s college students about sexual orientation is less sensitive than asking them about their race/ethnicity.

Second, it is more important than ever to ask this question. These data show that about 1 in 5 college students identify as NOT being heterosexual. Researchers need to start viewing these students as a segment, just as we do age or race. This is the reality of the Millennial market:  they are more likely to self-identify as not being heterosexual and more likely to be accepting of alternative lifestyles. Failure to understand this group results in a failure to truly understand the generation.

We have had three different clients ask us if we should start asking this question younger – to high school or middle school students. For now, we are advising against it unless the study has clear objectives that point to a need. Our reasoning for this is not that we feel the kids will find the question to be offensive, but that their parents and educators (whom we are often reliant on to be able to survey minors) might. We think that will change over time as well.

So, perhaps nothing is as simple as it seems.

Crux Research is Going to the Ogilvy’s!

Crux Research is excited to announce that our client, Truth Initiative, is a finalist for two David Ogilvy Awards. These awards are presented by the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF) annually to recognize excellence in advertising research. Ogilvy Awards honor the creative use of research in the advertising development process by research firms, advertising agencies and advertisers.

Truth Initiative is a longstanding client of Crux Research. Truth Initiative is America’s largest non-profit public health organization dedicated to making tobacco use a thing of the past. Truth is a finalist in two Ogilvy categories:

For both of these campaigns, Crux Research worked closely with CommSight and Truth Initiative to test the effectiveness of the approaches and executions prior to launch and to track the efficacy of the campaigns once in market.

We are honored and proud to be a part of these campaigns, to have had the opportunity to work with Truth Initiative and CommSight, and most importantly, to have played a supporting role in Truth’s mission to make youth smoking a thing of the past.

The 2016 ARF David Ogilvy Awards Ceremony will be held March 15 in New York.  More information can be found Ogilvy Awards.

“I wish that I could be like the cool kids”

In today’s digital environment, marketers are often seeking a viral way to spread news about their product or to stoke a trend. Traditional thinking was that trends spread predictably. Trends were seen to launch on the west coast (usually from urban environments), spread to the east coast, and eventually make their way to middle America and a mass market. This is why so many “cool seeker” or “trend seeker” researcher panels were established. By connecting to the cool kids in the right environments, marketers could get an early sense of what was going to happen next and get on board for the ride. They could seed ideas with the right audience and let nature take its course.

The Internet has largely blown up this paradigm. It has become a great “leveler” of youth trends. Now, a trend can start anywhere, become viral seemingly randomly, and spin out of control quickly. A geographic center of trends is hard to pinpoint if it exists at all. In research, “trend seeker” panels have become more of an oddity in market research – and have been supplanted largely by online communities of teens from across the country.

How can a communications and “connecting” technology (the Internet) have such a profound impact on how innovations and trends take hold?

Innovation diffusion to the mainstream has been the subject of academic study for some time.  Perhaps the most seminal work in the field came in 1962 when Everett Rogers published The Diffusion of Innovations. This book has been required reading at MBA marketing programs for more than 50 years.

In this book, Rogers outlines a classic theory. Innovators (2-3% of the population) start using a product. Early adopters (10%-15%) see what the innovators are doing and jump on board quickly. Next, the early majority (30%-35%) jumps on board as the hype around the product peaks. The late majority (30%-34%) gets on board. Finally, eventually the laggards (10%-15%) join in.

For decades, this thinking caused marketers to focus a disproportionate effort on the innovators – the 2%-3% of the population that supposedly spark new trends. This concept is the underpinning of why marketing dollars flow towards young people, urban consumers, minorities, etc. as marketers hope to start a chain reaction through the Rogers segments. Why have we had such a focus on youth marketing? It isn’t because they have a lot of money to spend, as compared to other age segments they don’t.  It is because marketers feel they are influential.

New media and viral marketing has made this thinking even more prevalent. If we can just reach the influencers, we’ll let loose a viral effect and sell a lot of product. Unfortunately, this thinking is a good example of applying an old paradigm to a new world.

Even in the pre-Internet past, this thinking tended to work more on a “fad” than a “trend” level. To illustrate this, in presentations I often ask the audience to write down what they think the most successful marketing brands and products have been in the past 10 years that are youth-oriented. I pause, and then list them out on a whiteboard. Typical responses are as follows:

  • The iPhone
  • Harry Potter franchise
  • American Idol
  • Barbie
  • National Football League
  • Various Boy Bands

I then point out that franchises like these, which have hit it incredibly big with youth, all have one thing in common. They didn’t diffuse to the mainstream in the Rogers fashion. They didn’t start by being popular with cool kids. Rather, they found a way to go directly to the mainstream. Oftentimes, they got there by being shunned by the cool kids.

I believe the rise of the Internet will eventually (once they catch on) cause marketers to stop thinking in the traditional way about how new trends diffuse to the mainstream. The introverted kid in the Midwest who has a popular blog is fast becoming more influential than the hipster on the street in Los Angeles. Marketers will find more direct tributaries to the mainstream, and the cool hunter research panels that still exist in the market research industry will disappear.

Analysis Paralysis and Big Data

Many of us in the market research field lament our poor timing when choosing when to be born. We went to college and graduate school and entered a field that focuses on data analysis at a time when this was a marginally marketable skill.  Data analysis is a field that has now exploded in its value to employers. Many of us feel we were at the forefront of an eventual “nerd takeover” of the business world.

We can explain why in two words:  “Big Data.” Never has there been more data aching to be analyzed. Consumers used to be tracked in just two ways:  when they bought something and when they took the time to interrupt their dinners to answer a telephone survey in the evening. Now, people are being tracked in ways unimaginable just a few years ago and perhaps in ways they don’t even realize.

The digital trail we leave as we navigate the Internet leaves a powerful and permanent data contrail. It used to be that marketers could learn where we went online.  Now, they can also learn who we are, what our friends do, and where we are when we do various things.

Yet, despite all of this data and attempts to harvest it, marketers often seem no more knowledgeable about their customers than they were a generation ago. This conundrum is often chalked up to a failing of researchers:  we have all this data, yet our researchers just haven’t yet discovered how to separate the signal from the noise.

While this may well be true, there also might be a “hype curve” type phenomenon going on.  The “hype curve” was made most famous by Gartner and is often studied in MBA programs. In short, when we are faced with something disruptive, we tend to overstate its potential.  Then, when the reality of the phenomenon inevitably fails to meet the hype, we adjust our expectations downward… but by too much.  We start to be overly critical of the phenomenon’s potential. In the final phase, the actual potential of the phenomenon establishes itself – somewhere between the initial hype and our revised, downward expectations of it.

Picture1

The hype curve can be used in many contexts.  I’ve seen it applied in politics.  President Obama came to office amid sky high (and unrealistic) expectations.  As he invariably failed to meet them all, people revised their assessment of his potential too far downward.  Eventually, his performance will be reviewed by historians as being between these two extremes.

I’ve seen the concept applied to music artists. A music artist puts out an incredible first album.  Fans start touting them as the next coming of the Beatles.  Their second album can’t possibly meet these expectations, and when it comes out the group start to fade in popularity. By the time their third album is released, it is time for their popularity to settle at an appropriate level.

They hype curve concept is most commonly applied to technology. A new gadget comes out.  We hear about how it will save the world and change our lives. It fails to meet those expectations, and people start to think that it won’t make much of a difference at all. Over time, the gadget finds its level – it is a useful addition to our lives.  Its reality falls between the initial hype and the revised expectation.

The hype curve example is applicable to Big Data as well, and we are in the early stages of it. Our expectations of what can be done with the incredible amounts of data that are out there are overstated. There will be a point soon when our expectations will be revised downward, and people will start to underestimate what can be done. Eventually, like all other innovations, Big Data will find its level.

So, right now is the perfect time to graduate from college with strong data analysis skills – too late for many of us unfortunately!